Protocols | PAWS Chicago

PAWS Chicago Training Protocols

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PAWS Chicago Dog Training Library

The following training protocols were developed by PAWS Chicago Director of Training and Canine Behavior, Joan Harris. These resources can help you manage your dog's specific behavioral challenges. 

Download Positive Reinforcement PDF


Finding the Right Trainer for Your Dog

With so many options available, finding the best trainer for your new dog can be confusing.  The first rule of thumb is to find a trainer that uses reward-based based methods of training.  Look for words such as force-free, positive reinforcement, or clicker training in the class or method descriptions.

What is positive reinforcement?

Very simply stated, dog training techniques that use positive reinforcement teach the dog that good things happen when desirable behaviors occur.  By generously rewarding behaviors that we want the dog to learn, undesirable behaviors will occur with less frequency and even hopefully, become extinct.

Without getting too technical, let’s look at B.F Skinner’s principles of operant conditioning. This is system of learning in which adding a reward increases a behavior and punishment decreases the behavior.  Early dog training techniques relied primarily on punishment based methods, resulting in what appeared to be quick results.  But through time, trainers discovered better methods that are more humane and pleasant for both the dog and trainer. Instead of expecting a dog to behave out of fear of punishment, positive reinforcement teaches the dog that compliance to our cues is fun and rewarding.

Why positive reinforcement?

Shelter dogs, in particular, often acquire fear issues and lack of confidence due to inconsistent handling or bad experiences.  Adding fear of punishment can exacerbate these problems resulting in further conflict for the dog. An example of this is a dog that may act aggressively towards something out of fear to create space or distance.  Using punishment may decrease the unwanted behavior but doesn’t change the emotional response of the dog.  Punishment actually makes behavior worse because fear shuts down the dog’s ability to learn.

Using reward-based methods to change or modify behavior can achieve permanent results by actually changing the dog’s emotional response from fear to confidence.  It may require more time and patience to determine the cause of the behavior, but the results are lasting.   Another bonus of using non-confrontational methods is a stronger partnership between dog and owner based on trust.

How does it work?

Creating a solid obedience foundation using a clicker or marker word is the first step. 

  • The clicker or marker word tells the dog precisely what it was doing right at that point in time and allows the handler to reinforce the behavior with the dog’s favorite treat.
  • Marking a behavior allows the handler to build desired behaviors that the dog needs to acquire.
  • Negative tools are avoided because they are simply unnecessary to teach important life skills to the dog.

For behavior modification, rewards can be used from a distance to counter-condition a dog’s fear of scary objects. Reinforced cued behaviors also can be used to teach the dog appropriate responses in other situations and unwanted behavior can be ignored to extinction.

For more information on Clicker Training and other behavior modification, see our training protocols and methods on the PAWS Chicago website under News & Resources, Protocols.

What to avoid when looking for a dog trainer

Avoid trainers that use the word “dominance” or that guarantee results in a specific time frame.  These trainers may put unnecessary pressure on the dog and resort to punishment, causing additional problems.  Remember that punitive measures cause the dog pain, frustration and fear resulting in damage to the human-dog bond.  Trainers that use the following methods should be avoided: 

  • Yanking a dog harshly
  • Choke, prong, or shock collars
  • Alpha rolls
  • Kicking, swatting or hitting
  • Rubbing a dog’s nose in his excrement or urine for eliminating in the home
  • Kneeing a dog in the chest for jumping

Remember that the best part of dog training is developing communication between the dog and trainer. Because the dog understands what he is being asked to do, he becomes an active participant in the learning process.  Positive, reward-based training is fun and will create a strong bond and lasting relationship!

Sign up for training classes here.

Download Clicker Training PDF


What is Clicker Training?

Clicker training is a positive reinforcement training system, based on the principals of classical and operant conditioning, that incorporates the use of a marker signal (the click) to tell a dog precisely what it was doing right at that point in time.  This allows us to build behaviors we want the dog to acquire.

What is a Clicker?

A clicker is a small plastic noisemaker that makes the sound of a “click” used to mark desirable behaviors.  In itself, it has no meaning to the dog but paired with a reward it becomes a powerful training tool.  Clickers are inexpensive and can be purchased at most pet stores and online.

Why can’t I just say “good dog” when my dog does something right?

As an event marker, the clicker becomes uniquely attached to your dog’s successful performance.  Since it is used as a training tool, it allows the handler to mark a behavior with greater precision and more consistency than we can do with our voice. 

Why is Positive Reinforcement so important?

Positive reinforcement will speed up your training process, while it strengthens the bond between you and your dog.  We are able to avoid punishment or negative tools because they are simply unnecessary while we are teaching important life skills; and punishment can cause the dog fear or conflict.  Reinforcing a behavior will make that behavior occur with more frequency while keeping the dog happy and engaged.  Our results will be a confident and enthusiastic learner.

What do I need to start?

  • A buckle or martingale collar
  • A 5 to 6 ft. training leash
  • A clicker
  • Many small treats that your dog really loves
  • A pouch or bait bag to hold your treats
  • A mat or bed that your dog can lie on
  • A chew toy, rawhide, bully stick or stuffed Kong toy (with peanut butter or wet dog food) to work with relaxation on a mat or bed

Getting Started

The premise of clicker training is quite simple; you see the behavior you want to reinforce, you mark it with a click, and you reward the behavior.


Find out what treats your dog really loves.  If the dog doesn’t really want the reward, it will not be motivated to learn.  Use small, soft treats that the dog can easily chew and swallow instead of hard, large treats that will cause it to lie down and chew.  If the dog’s diet allows, small pieces of cut up cheese, chicken, hotdogs or other special food is great.  Always train before a meal when your dog is hungry and alert!


Measure about ten treats in your one hand and have the clicker in the other. Simply click and then give your dog a treat.  The treat should be delivered in a distinctly separate physical motion from the click (keeping your treat hand behind your back until after you click will help).  If the treat hand is in motion, the dog will focus on the food; and the impact of the click will be diluted.  The treat must also be delivered immediately (within a second) after the click.  This will ensure that the click leaves a strong impact on the dog.  Repeat this process over the next couple days (you can do multiple sets of 10, but quit before your dog loses interest) until your dog can predict that the click means that a reward will follow.


Decide what behavior you want to mark.  Knowing this ahead of time will help you sharpen your observation skills in order to “capture” the desired behavior.  Pick an easy behavior your dog does naturally; such as making eye contact, sitting, or a cute head tilt.  Click one time, the moment the behavior occurs, and then reinforce with a treat.  Don’t worry if you accidentally click at the beginning, just be sure to deliver the treat.  A treat always follows a click to keep the dog’s association between the click and the reward strong.


Once your dog starts to repeat the desired behavior multiple times in anticipation of the click/reward, you are ready to attach a cue, teaching the dog it will be rewarded for a specific behavior.  Try to attach the cue a split second before your dog performs the behavior (click and treat) for several repetitions.  Then randomly cue the behavior; click and reward when your dog responds.


You have just taught your dog something new by capturing the behavior, marking and reinforcing the behavior, and then putting the behavior on cue.  Now you can practice capturing other desirable behaviors and putting them on cue, while increasing the lines of communication between you and your dog.  Remember to keep all training sessions short and upbeat.  Try to end the session while your dog is still interested and engaged.  He’ll remember the fun when you start your next training session.

Some Basic Skills


When you are teaching and reinforcing your dog for sitting, you are teaching a basic skill that can help with proper greetings and manners at mealtimes.  A dog with a reliable sit is easier to manage while leashing to go for a walk and passing through doorways.  When a dog is consistently reinforced for sitting when greeting people, it forgets it was ever fun to jump up on them in the first place.


With your dog’s favorite treat in your hand, bring the treat to your dog’s nose and raise your hand slowly (without losing contact with the dog’s nose) over its head.  This should bring its rear to the floor in a sit position.  When the dog is sitting, give it the treat.  Repeat several times until your dog easily sits as the treat is raised.


After you have lured your dog into sit multiple times; stand upright in front of your dog with a treat ready behind your back (or in a treat bag) and your clicker in the other hand.  When your dog offers a sit on its own, click while the behavior is occurring; and follow immediately with a treat.  *If your dog doesn’t sit at this time, go back to the lure for several more repetitions.


Put the behavior on cue by saying “sit” right when your dog begins the action of sitting (always click and reinforce the behavior).  After multiple repetitions, give the “sit” cue randomly, then click and reinforce when your dog responds.

At Home Fun:

  • Capture, click and reinforce sits your dog does spontaneously (if you don’t have your clicker, you can respond with a verbal marker such as the word “yes” with some praise and a treat).
  • Begin to cue a sit in real life situations such as before meals, when clipping the leash on, before petting and when going through the door.  Soon you will notice that your dog will automatically sit while waiting in these everyday situations.
  • Ask your dog to sit before you greet it after returning home.
  • Practice a sit in different rooms and with familiar family members or friends in the room.  Put a leash on your dog and practice a sit when a familiar family member or friend enters the room.
  • Practice outdoors at street corners and before getting into the car.
  • Practice a “sit” cue while approaching a person.  Practice greeting people outdoors by asking for a sit before allowing interaction.


Making eye contact and giving attention on cue is unnatural for most dogs, but it makes training so much easier if your dog can give you attention on cue. 


Have your clicker and treats ready when moving around the house. Say your dog’s name and click when it turns its head to check in.  Try the same thing while on a leash walk outdoors.


Put your dog on leash in a quiet room, and keep it close by stepping on the leash. Have your clicker and treats ready and when your dog looks up at you (even for a split second), capture the eye contact with a click and reward.  Repeat until you see that your dog is offering the behavior to get the click and treat.


Put the behavior on cue by saying “watch” as the behavior begins.  Repeat multiple times, always clicking as the behavior occurs and following with a treat.  Take a short break and then try giving the “watch” cue to see if your dog responds with the correct behavior. 


After several days of practicing “watch,” you are ready to teach your dog to respond in the presence of a light distraction.  With your dog in front of you, hold the treat off to the side.  Your dog’s gaze will follow the hand with the treat.  Give your “watch” cue, and wait for you dog to respond by making eye contact, even for a split second.  Try to click while the watch behavior is occurring (this will put your observation skills to the test) and follow with the treat.  Repeat until your dog can easily move its gaze away from the treat hand and make solid eye contact on cue (this could take a few sessions, so be patient).

At home fun: 

  • Ask for a brief moment of eye contact, “watch,” before throwing ball or toy, opening the door to go out for a walk or before putting down the food bowl at mealtimes.  These “real life” situations can be considered resources to your dog.  Soon you should see your dog checking in with you more frequently as it realizes that good behavior is expected and will be followed by something fun or pleasant.


When your dog learns to touch your hand on cue, it is practicing the skill of targeting.  This important skill can serve as a foundation to help teach other behaviors or even some fun tricks.  Using a target, such as a hand touch, is a good way to get a frightened dog past a scary object or to desensitize a dog to a frightening situation.  It can also be used to help us teach a dog to move from point A to point B or to go over an obstacle.


Start in a quiet place with your dog in front of you (put your dog on leash if necessary and then step on the leash to keep it near).   Have your clicker in one hand and the other hand behind your back.  Quickly take the hand from behind your back and place it about ¼ of an inch from your dog’s nose with an open palm.  Your dog should reach forward slightly and touch your hand.  Click at the precise time it touches your hand, then reach into your treat pouch and deliver a treat.  Repeat several times.


Put the behavior on cue by saying “touch” as your dog is reaching for your hand.  Watch your timing to be sure that you are clicking simultaneously to your dog’s touch.


After practicing your “touch” cue for several sessions, start to place your hand a little farther away from your dog’s nose so it has to move a greater distance.  Increase the distance in small increments, making sure your dog is having success.


Go back to your beginning point and try moving your hand, again in small increments, to the right, left, up and down. Always be aware that if you go too fast, your dog may become confused.

At home fun:

  • After your dog is familiar with the “touch” cue, you can change the cue to “say Hi” for a cute trick.  Simply put the new cue “say Hi” in front of the old cue “touch” as you put out your open palm for several repetitions.  Gradually fade out the old cue (touch) and your dog will learn to do the behavior on the new cue, “say Hi.”
  • Teach your dog to come when called by using a target.  Increase the distance from your dog while practicing the “touch” cue.  When your dog is fluent and reliable from several feet, change the cue to by putting the new cue “come” in front of the old cue “touch” for several repetitions.  Gradually fade out the old cue and your dog will learn to come to your open palm when it hears the cue “come.”


Teaching a dog to lie down and relax is an important skill for living in a home environment.


Start with your dog in a sit (you can kneel next to your dog if it’s easier) and hold a treat to your dog’s nose.  Very slowly bring the treat down along your dog’s chest to the floor.  Click and drop the treat between your dog’s front feet when it lies down.


Repeat several times giving the “down” cue as your dog is following the treat to the ground. Continue to click and drop the treat between your dog’s feet when it lies down.


Take the treat between your thumb and forefinger.  Turn your hand so your dog only sees the top of your hand and not the treat.  Give your “down” cue and slowly move your hand (with the treat hidden) to the ground.  Click and release the treat when your dog’s elbows hit the ground.


Now you can start alternating having the treat and not having the treat in your hand so that your dog is responding to the hand signal cue instead of the treat.  Make sure to click and reinforce your dog as soon as its elbows touch the ground.   After a few sessions your goal is to fade the lure completely and reinforce consistently when your dog responds to your cue.


Once you’ve faded out the lure, gradually work on giving your cue from an upright position so your dog doesn’t rely on your bending over to give the cue.  Always give you verbal cue, “down,” a second before you start your hand signal, giving your dog a chance to start responding to the verbal cue.

At Home Fun:

  • If your dog can respond consistently to the “down” cue, teach your dog to go directly into the down position without going through sit.  You can do this by walking next to your dog with a treat in your hand and then bringing the treat directly to the ground between your dog’s front legs as you give the cue “down”.  Click and reward as soon as your dog is completely down.   Repeat multiple times.  Each time you should see that your dog’s response is faster.
  • Take your dog’s favorite toy engage your dog with some fast-playful movements without allowing it to have it.  When you see it really wants the toy, stop moving and give your “down “cue.  As soon as your dog is down, toss the toy for it to retrieve.  This should speed up its response even more!
  • Alternate give your dog the “sit” and “down” cue, clicking and rewarding the correct response.  Teach your dog to move from the down to sit position with a lure and then back down again.  Now you have puppy “push-ups!” 

Mat Training

Once your dog has mastered a “down,” you can start to teach it to go to a mat or bed and relax.  This is an important skill that teaches your dog to settle and is a good way to foster independence.  Your goal is that your dog learns to relax on its mat or bed for 20-30 minutes while you watch TV, read a book or cook dinner!


Start by placing a mat or bed in a convenient place on the floor.  Be ready with your clicker and treats.  Click and reward any interest your dog shows in the mat/bed.  This can be a look or movement towards the bed.  *To speed up your progress, reinforce your dog after the click by tossing the treat directly onto the mat/bed. 


In small increments, reward any movement towards the bed.  Raise your criteria slowly to one foot on the mat/bed, 2 feet on the mat/bed, 3 feet on the mat/bed until your dog is putting all 4 feet consistently on the bed.  This may take you several sessions to achieve. *This technique is known as “shaping” and is used to build more complex behaviors.


Once your dog is consistently offering to go to the mat/bed, you can start to cue the behavior by saying “Go to place” and then rewarding.  Gradually increase the amount of time your dog must stay on the mat/bed before you click and treat.


Now you’re ready to add distance, one step at a time, to the exercise.  While you are adding distance, decrease the amount of time (duration) the dog is required to stay on the mat/bed so that you are focusing on one discipline at a time.  This will make learning easier for the dog. *If your run into trouble at this point, go back to the last place you had success and increase your criteria more slowly.  Don’t rush; this exercise will take several sessions to complete.


Now you’re ready to add a “down” to all of this.  Go back to the beginning by standing close to the mat/bed.  Give your cue “Go to place.”  Instead of clicking when your dog steps on the mat/bed, cue your dog to “down.” *If your dog is not 100% proficient with its down, go ahead and lure the down and then jackpot by dropping multiple treats between its front feet.  Before the dog jumps up, try to drop several more treats between its front feet to encourage it to stay longer.

  • Once your dog in automatically giving you a “down,” start to increase the amount of time it must stay in this position before the click and treat.  Then increase by small increments the distance away from the mat/bed.
  • Remember to keep all sessions short, only 20-30 repetitions, and to quit while your dog is engaged and still having fun.  Pick up you mat/bed when you are done with the exercise as a signal that training is finished.

Download Crate Training PDF


Crate training a new dog or puppy can be an effective way to prevent destructive behavior, such as chewing on household items, as well as being a tool for housebreaking.  Besides containing the dog until household rules can be taught, a crate takes advantage of a dog’s instinct not to soil its sleeping place.  Many dogs like the den-like atmosphere of a crate and will choose to sleep inside when the door is left open.  A crate can serve as a safe and comfortable way of transporting a dog in a car and can be a familiar “home away from home” while traveling.

Selecting a crate

There are two popular types of crates, collapsible wire crates and plastic airline or Vari-Kennels.  Both styles come in various sizes and are available on-line or at pet supply stores.  Wire crates offer more air circulation and some styles come with a divider that expands the size of the crate.  This can be a money saver when training a growing puppy.  Plastic airline or Vari-Kennels provide more privacy and a den-like feel.

When housebreaking a puppy or adult dog, it is important that the crate is just big enough for the puppy/dog to stand up, turn around and lie down.  If the crate is too large, the puppy /dog may choose to eliminate on one side of the crate and sleep on the other.  If the dog is housebroken, buy a crate with more space so the dog can spread out and be comfortable.

Introducing the dog to the crate

Be patient; crate training can take several days or even weeks to complete.  The goal is to associate the crate with something positive and avoid making the experience unpleasant for the dog.  It is advisable to keep the crate in the bedroom overnight to observe the dog’s behavior and to take it out to relieve itself if necessary.

Step 1:

Set up the crate in a convenient spot.  If housebreaking a new puppy/dog, the crate can be moved into the bedroom at night if necessary (for puppies/dogs who need overnight crating, complete the first 3 steps before putting the dog in the crate overnight).  Line the crate with a towel or blanket to make it comfortable for the dog.  Make sure the crate door is securely fastened open, so the dog can walk in and out without the door swinging.

Step 2:

Lure the dog over to the crate with its favorite treats.  Place a few treats inside the crate, close to the door, and let the dog eat them.  Toss a few of the treats inside the crate and allow the dog to get used to going in and out.  Do not force the dog in but allow it to go at its own pace.  If the dog has a favorite toy, toss the toy in and allow the dog to retrieve it.

Step 3:

Next, begin feeding the dog its meals inside of the crate.  Start by putting the dish all the way in the back of the crate.  After a few meals, start closing the crate door while the dog is eating and then letting it out as soon as the meal is finished.

Step 4:

With each successive meal, leave the crate door closed a few minutes longer, working up to 10 minutes.  If the dog starts to whine, back it up to the last place of success and then increase the time again.  It is imperative that the dog is not whining when it is let out of the crate or it will learn that whining is the way to get the door to open.

Step 5:

To condition the dog for longer periods in the crate, prepare a long-lasting food toy such as a Kong stuffed with peanut butter or a bully stick.  Bring the dog over to the crate with a treat.  Give the cue “Crate” and toss in the treat.   Once the dog enters the crate, give it the Kong or bully stick and close the door.  Sit in the room with the dog and wait until it finishes the food toy.  Wait a few minutes and let the dog out while it is still quiet.

Crating the dog when left alone

It is advisable to crate the dog with someone home for short periods to prevent the association with the crate and being left alone.  Start by leaving the room for short periods while the dog is busy with its toy or relaxing.  Gradually work this time up to about 30 minutes.  Getting the dog used to being alone while in the crated is a good first step.

The next step is getting the dog used to being crated with no one home.  This is usually best practiced on days off from work and for short periods of time first.  Put the dog in the crate with stuffed Kong or bully stick about 15 minutes before leaving.  Do not make a big deal of departure; keep it low key.  The same follows on the return home.  Wait until the dog is settled before opening the crate and keep excitement to a minimum.

Slowly increase the time the dog can be left alone to about 5 or 6 hours (for an adult dog).  This is maximum time a dog should be crated.  For a full work day schedule, employ a dog walker to come in to allow the dog time out of the crate to relieve itself and take a walk.

Helpful tips

  • Young puppies have very little bladder control and from 8 to 12 weeks they may need to go out every hour.  As they mature, a good rule for duration in the crate is:  3 months old - 3 hours, 4 months old – 4 hours, 5 months old - 5 hours, 6 months and older – 6 hours.
  • Never use the crate as a form of punishment.  It is possible however, to use the crate for a brief time-out when necessary.  Always give the dog something pleasant to do in the crate such as a stuffed Kong or puzzle toy during time-outs.
  • Do not allow children to play around the dog’s crate or to handle the dog while in the crate. 
  • Make sure the dog had a walk and fully eliminated before leaving alone in the crate.
  • It is advisable to remove the dog’s collar before leaving alone in the crate.  Tags or buckles can get stuck in the wires of the crate.

Download Head Halter PDF


What is a Head Halter?

Head Halters are designed to direct your dog’s entire body by controlling the head and nose, making them a good choice for some dogs with problems walking on leash.  A dog head halter loops over the dog‘s muzzle just below the eyes.  You then attach your leash below the chin.

When your dog pulls on the leash, the head halter puts pressure on the top of the muzzle, pulling its chin down or to the side.  This reduces the strength the dog has to pull and makes it easier for you to get your dog’s attention when it is distracted.

It is important to remember that dog head halters are just a piece of equipment and will not teach your dog to stop pulling without training.  Some dogs find the pressure on their nose uncomfortable enough to stop them from pulling and others will try to power through it.  A head halter is a very useful tool for reactive dogs giving you some control over your dog’s gaze.

There are different brands on the market, but the two most popular are the Gentle Leader and the Halti Optifit.  Many dogs do not like the feeling of the head halter on their muzzles and it takes some time for them to get used to it.  Make sure your dog’s head halter is fit correctly and is not too tight.  The equipment is adjustable and comes with fitting instructions; but make sure your dog has enough room to pant, take treats, drink water and even play ball. 

As with all new equipment, don’t rush your training.  Use short sessions over several days making sure your dog is wearing it happily.

Step 1:

Get yourself familiar with the head halter and prepare some of your dog’s favorite treats.  Show your dog the head halter and reward it for sniffing it.

Step 2:

Hold the head halter open with your hands and put a treat in front of the nose opening.  Make sure the opening is very large and allow your dog to take the treat when it puts its nose through the opening.  Repeat this step several times until your dog is reliably putting its nose through the opening to get the treat.

Step 3:

Clip the neck collar on your dog without having it put its nose through the loop.  Reward your dog. Remember that the collar needs to fit up high and directly behind your dog’s ears.  This may fit more snuggly than a regular collar and feel different to your dog; so keep the treats coming!

Step 4:

Adjust the loop so it is smaller and repeat Step 2 until your dog is comfortable.   While your dog’s nose is through the loop, clip the collar and jackpot your dog with many treats for wearing the head halter.  Remove immediately after your celebration.

Step 5:

Repeat Step 4 during your next training session and then over several sessions, increase the time your dog wears the head halter.  Take your time during this step and continue to reinforce your dog with its favorite treats.

Step 6:

Always use a treat to condition your dog to put its nose through the loop and after clipping the collar.  When your dog can happily wear the head halter for about 30 seconds, attach your leash to the ring under your dog’s chin.

Step 7:

Repeat Step 6 and after your leash is on, teach your dog to move forward walking next to you.  If it seems uncomfortable, lure it with a treat; otherwise, praise and reward it periodically for staying close to your side.  Practice indoors until your dog is extremely comfortable and then try walking outdoors in a quiet place without distractions.  Keep your sessions short and increase the distraction level slowly.

Helpful Tips

Remember that a head halter is a training aide and does not replace obedience training; they should be used side by side.  If your dog has some obedience training foundation, you can start to practice with the head halter on.  The following tips can be helpful:

  • Never use corrections or jerk on the head halter for any reason. This could be dangerous and injure your dog’s neck.  Instead use the collar to guide your dog.
  • Do not keep the leash tight while your dog is walking.  This will cause discomfort and it may stop enjoying the head halter. Immediately release pressure on the leash when your dog is walking beside you and reward it consistently for good walking behavior.
  • Make sure the collar you choose has a safety strap that connects with your regular collar.  Without this strap, your dog could get loose.  A second leash connected to the dog’s regular collar can be used as a backup if necessary.

Used properly and trained patiently, head halters are a helpful training tool.  Walking a dog in the city can be challenging and head halters are a great help for reactive, strong or exuberant dogs.

Download Jumpy/Mouthy PDF


The usual profile of a jumpy/mouthy dog is an adolescent or young adult dog with a friendly, confident and playful personality. Generally, these dogs lack training and never learned behavioral inhibition. They jump up on people, grab clothing or leashes, and become very mouthy during play or when aroused.

Because jumpy/mouthy dogs are very high energy and impulsive, they become very frustrated in situations without adequate exercise and enrichment.  Mouthy behavior can range from painless or annoying to very uncomfortable, sometimes breaking skin or tearing clothes.

Fear issues from lack of socialization can sometimes be noted in jumpy/mouthy dogs.  Therefore, it is important to avoid punishment based training solutions.  Punitive or aversive methods may be misinterpreted by the dog resulting in increased anxiety, fear and frustration.  If fear issues prevent training from being successful, consult a veterinarian behaviorist for a treatment plan. 

All training plans require management to keep the behavior from reoccurring; but exercise, enrichment, and training are also necessary to achieve results.

Exercise and enrichment

  • Increase the dog’s exercise routine to at least 2 long walks a day (besides regular breaks to relieve himself).  These walks should be a minimum of 30 minutes each and incorporate different routes for enrichment purposes.
  • Jogging or running next to a bicycle can also help to tire out a dog with excessive energy.  Some owners invest in dog treadmills if they don’t like walking or running.
  • Teach the dog retrieve a ball in the yard. 
  • For social dogs, set up play times with other dogs.


  • Teach the dog some basic cue’s to be used for response substitution.  A dog cannot jump up and sit at the same time.  *See Clicker Training Protocol
  • During training, deliver treats from a low position or toss them on the floor to discourage jumping up.
  • Teach your dog to relax on a mat or bed *See Relaxation Protocol
  • Use the dog’s daily walks to practice training and impulse control. *See Dog Walking Protocol
  • Enroll in a clicker training class to help the dog maintain obedience for longer durations and in distracting situations. 


  • Discourage all jumpy/mouthy behavior from the dog.  Consistency is imperative for results. Withdraw all attention and turn away from the dog when jumping or mouthing occurs.  Leave the room if this does not help.
  • Leash the dog and step on the leash if the jumping persists.
  • Use a crate for a time-out during times when management is impossible. *See Crate Training Protocol
  • Teach the dog that good things happen for responding to the “sit” cue. *See Managing A Dog’s Behavior Protocol
  • Have the dog learn to sit before and during greetings with other people.

Download Leash Reactivity PDF


The most common reason a dog may react aggressively towards other dogs, people or fast-moving bikes and cars is fear.  The dog’s aggressive response works to keep the scary dog, person or vehicle away or at a distance.  Lack of socialization, frustration or a previous bad experience are usually the root cause of this fear and helping the dog with specific strategies that will build confidence and improve the dog’s emotional response is the goal.


If it is a new dog or training plan, it is helpful to identify the distance away from the trigger where the dog will begin to react.  Try to keep the dog under the reaction threshold by avoiding the trigger (other dogs, people or object) until the dog has mastered the obedience cues below.   The goal is to get the dog to stop practicing the reactive behavior by creating distance; crossing the street, changing direction or hiding behind a parked car are possible strategies.  Walking on quiet streets during low traffic times makes this easier to achieve. In cases or when it is impossible to avoid close encounters, it is advisable to keep the dog in the back yard at first.


Always fill pockets or treat bags with small, high value treats before every walk for luring the dog’s attention away from the trigger. Remember, if the dog is allowed to practice the reactive behavior, reactivity will become more frequent and intense. The strategy is to keep the dog under threshold, so it has no reason to feel unsafe.

The right equipment is very important for safety and success.  Make sure the leash is in good condition and is no longer than 5-6 feet.  Front clip harnesses can work well for some dogs such as the Easy Walk Harness or the Freedom Harness (both can be found online and in pet supply stores.  Head halters such as the Opti Head Halter or the Gentle Leader are also appropriate as they give good control in a non- punitive manner. *See handout for Training with a Head Halter. When in doubt about the best choice of equipment for the dog, consult a dog trainer.


Start by teaching the dog some basic obedience cues that will be the foundation tools providing the dog with clear directions. If a private trainer is necessary to assist with the training, consult one who uses positive reinforcement and avoids the use of punishment. The following handouts are also recommended:  Clicker Training, Relaxation Protocol, Managing your Dog’s Behavior, Dog Walking 101, Leave it and Drop it. Important skills the dog need to master before starting out are: Sit, Watch, Let’s go, and Leave it. 

Counter Conditioning and Desensitization

If we remember that the dog’s reactivity is rooted in fear, we can work to change the dog’s emotional response to the scary dog, person, or thing.  One way to do this is to condition the dog that good things happen in the presence of what the dog considers to be scary. 

Step 1:

Determine what treats the dog really likes and keep them in a bait bag or pocket for easy access.  Don’t hold back; these treats should be something it gets in no other circumstance.  You can even use people food like roast chicken, steak or cheese.  Whatever sends the dog over the moon!

Step 2:

Stand at a distance where the dog can see the trigger without reacting.  Remember the goal of keeping the dog under threshold. 

Step 3:

When the trigger appears, wait a split second for the dog to see it and then start to give the dog the treats and continue to deliver the treats until the trigger is out of sight.  Our goal is to change the dog’s association with the scary thing from “stay away” to “that scary thing makes good things happen.”

Step 4:

Once the dog is having success from this distance, you can start to move a little closer.  This could mean only 3-5 feet closer.  Go slow; be patient.  Remember when you allow the dog to go over threshold, thinking stops and the dog starts rehearsing the unwanted behavior.

Response Substitution

Another method of training that can help a reactive dog is the use of response substitution.  This method works by replacing the unwanted behavior with an alternate, more appropriate one.  For example, a dog cannot lunge aggressively at the end of a leash if it is focusing on the handler or responding to obedience cues.  Once the dog can respond reliably to the cues suggested above without distraction, begin to use response substitution on walks.  The goal is to keep the dog’s attention by giving cues that are generously rewarded rather than giving the dog the opportunity to react to the trigger.

Step 1:

Start by training at a time when there is a low amount of traffic and it is possible to have a distance between the dog and the trigger.  It is generally best to start with the trigger on the other side of the street. Have the dog’s favorite treats easily available in a pocket or bait bag.

Step 2:

As soon as the trigger is in sight and before the dog starts to react, immediately start some fast-paced obedience with the dog until the trigger is out of sight.  The cues need to be very familiar to the dog and there needs to be a high level of reinforcement with the treats.  Easy cues to start with are: “Let’s go” walking forward or backing up and then adding some quick sits, “Watch” rewarding the dog for checking in, and “Leave it” followed by fast movement while changing direction.

Step 3:

With time it should be possible to move progressively closer to the trigger.  Remember to move slowly and be patient, always keeping the dog under threshold by using high value treats, fast movements and an appropriate distance from the trigger.  Keep sessions short and try to end with success.  Keeping training notes can be helpful for planning the next session.

Download Managing Behavior PDF


It is correct to assume that you are in charge of all your dog’s resources. In other words, everything your dog needs for survival and everything it finds pleasant or rewarding, is controlled by you.  This can be used to your advantage when it comes to finding a non-confrontational way to manage your dog’s behavior.  The concept is not new; it involves teaching your dog that in order to get what it wants; it needs to give you what you want.  This is the basic principle of the "Nothing in Life is Free” program and the “Say Please Program.”

By asking for a specific, desired behavior before giving access to the things it likes, you may teach your dog good manners in a non-confrontational way.  Clear rules with enjoyable outcomes can help build your dog’s confidence and reign in pushy, rude behavior.  For fearful dogs or those with separation anxiety, this plan can make life more predictable and may lower   anxiety levels.

Step 1:

First you’ll need to teach your dog a few simple cued behaviors such as sit, touch, watch or down.  *See Clicker Training Basics.  Make sure your dog knows these cues and can do them for a treat before proceeding.  

Step 2:

Make a list of things your dog finds enjoyable.  This can be food, treats, walks outdoors, playtime; meeting new dogs or people; receiving a belly rub; being invited up on the couch or bed; or going for a ride in the car.

Step 3:

Before giving your dog access to any of the things on your list, give your cue one time only.  If your dog does what you ask, it gets what it wants; if the dog ignores you, turn and walk away.  Scolding, saying, “no!” or even looking at it constitutes attention; so turn and ignore your dog.  Return when your dog is calm and ask for the behavior again.  But ask only once.  Ignore any pushy attempts for attention such as barking, jumping up, pawing, mouthing or nudging.

Step 4: 

Be consistent!  This is the hardest part.  It is important that all members of the family partake in this program for best results.  Be patient with your dog at first.  It may take a while before it understands that it needs to work for the things it wants and that good manners are always expected.

Helpful Tips

  • Start with easy cues that your dog knows such as “sit” before a treat, its meals, or putting on its leash to go outdoors.  It may take 10 attempts the first time you try, but turn and ignore until you get what you want.  Hang in there, it will get easier every time!
  • If your dog is crazy about its food or you are worried about weight gain, save some of your dog’s food for reinforcing behavior.  This way you can teach it to work for its dinner.
  • Pick cues that may be incompatible with behaviors you want to change.  For example, if your dog jumps up and is excited to greet you or new people, ask for “sit” before it is allowed to do so.  Your dog can’t sit and jump up at the same time.
  • Initiate all interactions with your dog.  If your dog paws, barks or nudges for attention, ignore it completely.  Call your dog over when you are ready to interact and ask for a behavior first before engaging.

These simple rules can help you live in harmony with your dog.  Having clear rules with predictable outcomes creates clear communication.  An added bonus is having a dog with good manners; and who doesn’t enjoy that?

Download Muzzle Training PDF


When to Use a Muzzle

Dog muzzles may be a controversial topic but there may be some very appropriate reasons to teach you dog to wear one.  Certain situations exist where a dog may be likely to bite a human or another dog due to fear or perceived threat.  Dogs who have displayed aggressive behavior in the past should consult with a veterinarian, behaviorist or trainer and most canine professionals agree that it is a safe and humane method to manage aggression.   

Muzzles are not an appropriate way to control barking or chewing and are meant to be used for short periods of time.  Some basket muzzles are designed to allow dogs to pant, drink water and even receive treats; while soft muzzles (made from fabric) are less comfortable and don’t allow a dog to open its mouth

Basket muzzles are the best choice to use if a dog is going for a walk or run.  A basket muzzle is more comfortable and can be worn for a longer period of time.  Soft muzzles are usually used at the groomer or veterinarian office where a dog is being handled at close quarters for a short period of time.

Proper fit is important and you may need to measure your dog’s muzzle, especially when ordering online.  Teaching your dog to wear a muzzle comfortably will take time, sometimes up to a week, to make sure it is comfortable with each step. 

The following instructions are for a basket muzzle.

Step 1:

Show your dog the muzzle and let him sniff it.  Immediately reward with its favorite treat for exploring the muzzle.  Repeat several times and reward immediately if it touches its nose to the muzzle.

Step 2:

Tip the basket muzzle and place your hand over the bottom part so the treats don’t run out.  Place several of its favorite treats inside and let your dog put its head into the muzzle to eat them. It may stick its head back in several times to get the treats or keep it inside to eat them all at once.  Alternately, you can place a scoop of peanut butter or cream cheese in the bottom of the muzzle for it to lick out.  Repeat this for a few days until your dog willingly puts its head in the muzzle anticipating something good inside.

Step 3:

Repeat Step 2 and while your dog is eating the treats or peanut butter, calmly fasten the buckle.  Remove it immediately when your dog finishes the treats. Repeat several times.

Step 4:

Next, repeat Step 3 but count to five before removing the muzzle.

Step 5:

Over the next few days, gradually increase the time your dog wears the muzzle.  You can stick treats through the holes in the muzzle while wearing it to help increase your dog’s comfort.

Step 6:

Make sure your dog is very comfortable before stepping outdoors in the muzzle.  Put on your dog’s leash and walk it around the house using a lot of praise and treats.  Try the same thing out doors in a quiet place such as a back yard before going on your regular walking route.

You may only need to use the muzzle for specific occasions or it may be something you need to walk your dog in a public place.  Either way, make sure your dog has had plenty of time and training before wearing it in distracting situations.  Remember to reward your dog every time you put the muzzle on it to make sure it is a pleasurable experience.

Download Leash Walking PDF


Taking your dog for a walk should be an enjoyable experience for both you and your dog, but walking a dog that pulls you all over the place can be both frustrating and unpleasant.  Many people assume that an adult or adolescent dog should innately know proper leash behavior but in fact, it requires some training and a lot of consistency.  Many challenges exist outdoors such as new sounds, sights and smells, as well as unfamiliar people, dogs and traffic.  If your dog has not been exposed to this environment, it can be overwhelming and overstimulating.   Proper leash etiquette can set the tone of your relationship with your dog and does not require extensive obedience training.

First, introduce your dog to its new walking equipment.  It may be sufficient to start with your regular martingale or buckle collar, but you may find that you will have better control with a front-clip harness or a head halter such as a Gentle Leader or Head Halti.  *See protocol, “How to fit a Gentle Leader or Head Halti,” and note that it may take some time for your dog to be comfortable enough to walk outside with this equipment.  You will also need your dog’s favorite treats. These treats must be its absolute favorite ones to start with.  You can even use small pieces of cheese, chicken or hot dogs if necessary.   You will also need a place to put them such as a pouch, bait bag or large pocket and a 5-foot or 6- foot leash.

You only need to teach 3 easy cues to start with: “Let’s go,” “Free,” and “Wait.”  Your goal is to teach your dog that by responding to your cues, you will allow it to move forward with you or have a loose leash to sniff and explore.   You only want to allow these privileges when your dog defers to you by responding when you give a cue.  Be consistent, it will pay off in the end.

Start in a quiet place indoors where you can practice without distraction.  Pick a side, right or left, for your dog to walk on that is most comfortable for you.   If you want your dog to learn to walk on your left side, put your leash in your right hand and bunch up the extra slack like an accordion.  Your left hand, the side closest to your dog, will control the tension so that the leash is across your body.  You want to make sure there’s no pressure on the dog’s collar but no extra leash.  Reverse this if you want your dog to walk on your right side.  Once you’re comfortable with this position, you can move on to the following cues.  Practice indoors first, then in quiet places outdoors before trying a walk with any distractions.

"Let’s Go"

“Let’s go” will be used any time you want your dog to walk on your side and move with you.  It’s best to pick one side that your dog can be trained on.

Step 1:

Working indoors or in a quiet place outdoors, allow your dog a loose leash to do as it pleases.  Have a treat in your left hand bringing it close enough to your dog’s nose to get its attention.  Once you have your dog’s attention,  turn to your right as you say “Let’s go.”  Start walking forward with your treat hand behind you to serve as a target for your dog to follow.  When it gets to your hand say “Yes,” praise your dog and giveit the treat for following you.  Try not to look back or wait for your dog, but move forward with purpose.  Practice several repetitions of this to make sure your dog understands to come to you on the “Let’s go” cue.

Step 2:

Still working in a quiet place, fill your pocket or pouch with treats.  Decide which side you’d like your dog to walk on and hold a few treats in your hand on that side of your body.  Hold your leash in the opposite hand.  Say “Let’s go” and take a few steps forward with your treat hand in front of your dog’s nose.  When your dog gets to your hand, stop and reward.  Repeat, just a few steps at a time, rewarding your dog along the seam of your pants.  During your first session, make a big circle with your dog on the outside of the circle.  If the dog moves ahead of you, stop moving and use your treats to lure it back to your side.

Step 3:

Practice several days until you see your dog is walking well on a loose lead for several steps before rewarding.  Remember to stop if it moves ahead of you and lureit back to your side.  Work on taking the treats out of your hand and placing your hand on the leash.  Continue to reward occasionally for loose leash walking or “checking in” with you for treats.


The “Free” cue is used when you want to allow your dog freedom to sniff and explore.  The only rule is that the dog cannot pull you forward or in other directions.

Step 1:

Still working indoors or in a quiet place, go back and practice Step 3 of the “Let’s go” cue.  This time, at the end of the exercise say “Free” to your dog and let it move to the end of the leash.  It can now roam as it pleases.  Repeat this sequence several times until your dog gets the hang of it.

Step 2:

Start again in an area with no distraction such as a back yard or quiet sidewalk.  Give your dog the “Let’s go” cue and practice your leash walking.  At the end release your dog with the “Free” cue.  Practice calling your dog back to your side by turning and giving the “Let’s go” cue.  Repeat this sequence until your dog is fluent.  Anytime your dog starts pulling during the “Free” time, stop moving and bring it back to your side with the “Let’s go” and take a few steps with your dog next to you before rewarding.  It may be necessary to back up a few steps or change direction to bring your dog to your side.


Sometimes it is important for your dog to stop moving and wait during a walk.  This can happen at doorways, street corners or when you need to tie your shoe. 

Step 1:

Set up a barrier in a quiet place indoors.  This can simply be a broom across a doorway between rooms in your home.   Walk your dog up to the barrier from a close distance using your “Let’s go” cue.  As you approach the barrier give your dog the cue “Wait” and then stop moving in front of the barrier.  It is important that you don’t allow your dog to cross the barrier even if you need to use the leash to do this. When your dog stops moving and the leash is loose, reward with a treat and then say “Let’s go” and move through the barrier.  Your dog can pick any position it likes (sit, lie down or stand) as long as it waits with a loose leash. 

Step 2:

Repeat this exercise several times until you see your dog stop immediately on the cue and look up at you for the treat. 

Now you’re ready to go!  To prepare for your walk, make sure you have several treats in your pocket and your dog has an understanding of the cues above.  Set the tone for your walk at the doorway going out.  Give your dog the “Wait” cue as you open the door.  Keep your leash short so your dog cannot bolt out and wait until it stops moving and your leash is loose.  Proceed with your “Let’s go” cue and reinforce your dog for a loose leash and “checking in” with you.

  • On your walk, release your dog with “Free” to sniff or to go relieve himself.
  • Use your “Wait” cue when picking up after your dog an at all street corners and alleys.
  • Continue to use your treats to occasionally reinforce good behavior and to keep your dog engaged. 
  • Do not let your dog fixate on another dog, person or animal.
  • It is very important in that you are proactive and aware of what your dog is doing.  If you see your dog is starting to pull towards or fixate on something, immediately call it to you with “Let’s go” and change directions before you lose control. 
  • Use your “Let’s go” cue and keep your dog at your side when passing people or other dogs on a walk.  If you need to, pull out a treat to bring back focus.
  • Do not let your dog pull you or rush ahead into new spaces or buildings or up to people or other dogs to greet them.  Your dog needs to “Wait” for your permission and approach calmly.

Remember that being consistent will pay off in the end.  For more exercises, enroll in a clicker training class *See protocol for Clicker Training or another class that incorporates positive reinforcement training methods.  Also, contact a trainer if your dog is lunging at people, other dogs or animals and is not responding to the instructions above *See protocol for On Leash Reactivity.

Download Relaxation PDF


Relaxation Protocol

Teaching your dog to relax on a mat is a great way to build independence and impulse control.  You can also take the mat with you when you visit family or friends or go to a more stressful place like the veterinarian office.  Mat training should be part of every obedience plan and can be very useful for helping jumpy/mouthy dogs to relax and dogs with separation anxiety to gain more confidence.

Start out in a quiet room with no distractions.  You will need a mat such as kitchen rug, yoga mat or crate pad and some small treats that your dog loves (small pieces of cut up cheese, chicken or hot dogs work well).  It is also helpful to have a pouch or large pocket to keep the treats in for easy access.  Set up a chair next to the mat for you to sit in while you train (you’ll need to relax, too).  Keep your first few sessions short, no longer than 3- 5 minutes.

Step 1:

Scatter a few treats on the mat and then bring your dog over to sniff.  Ignore your dog while it is eating the treats and sit down on the chair.

Step 2:

As soon as your dog finishes the treats and before it leaves the mat, drop a few more treats on the mat between your dog’s front feet.

Step 3:

Do not pet or talk to your dog and do not allow it to leave the mat.  Watch for any signs of relaxation such as sitting, lying down or yawning and immediately drop another few treats between your dog’s front legs.  If your dog does not lie down, you can lure it into the down position and reinforce by dropping your treats between its front legs.

Step 4:

If your dog continues to relax by either sitting or lying down, lessen the number of treats and deliver them at 10 second intervals.  If your dog gets up, stop your treat delivery until your dog resumes the relaxation position of either sit or down.  End your session while your dog is still engaged and having fun.  Pick up your mat to signal the end of the session.

Step 5:

Start your next session in the same manner.  Ideally, your dog will want to lay down and you can start to increase the time your dog relaxes on the mat while you extend the interval time of your treat deliveries to every 20 seconds and then, every 30 seconds.  At this point, you can also give your dog a long lasting treat such as a Kong stuffed with peanut butter or a bully stick. 

Step 6:

Your goal is for your dog to master the steps above and increase the relaxation time to 20-30 minutes.  At this point you are ready to add distance between you and your dog, increasing your dog’s independence.  Follow the steps below:

  1. Tether a food stuffed Kong toy to a sturdy piece of furniture and place your dog’s mat next to the toy.
  2. Place your chair a few feet from the mat and sit down.
  3. Allow your dog to go to the toy and enjoy it while lying on the mat.
  4. With each training session, gradually increase your distance away from the mat until you are able to get up and leave the room for a few seconds while your dog stays relaxed on the mat.



Step 7:

You can now try to generalize the mat training by taking the mat to another quiet room.  It may be necessary to repeat some of the first steps but soon your dog will be able to relax in a different spot.

Step 8:

Next, you can try to add some light distraction such as dropping an object, standing up and sitting back down, moving around the room, or having a familiar person enter the space.

Additionally, you can teach your dog to go to the mat using a clicker. *See Clicker Training Protocol for instructions.   This will teach you how to put the behavior on cue and also how to send your dog to the mat from a distance.  Once accomplished, these exercises will help you enjoy the calm side of your dog while you both chill out!

Download the Separation Anxiety PDF


What is Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety or fear of being left alone, is a behavioral problem that is common with dogs who have spent time in a shelter environment. Dogs are very social animals; they bond strongly with people and other animals.  Certain dogs are more dependent on a particular person or other animal and can become terrified when left alone.  Changes of routine or schedules can magnify the problem, increasing the dog’s anxiety and fear.

Many people mistake boredom or lack of training with separation anxiety.  Dogs who have not been trained on household rules are likely to chew up belongings.  If a dog is not properly housetrained, accidents can occur.  High energy dogs without sufficient exercise and stimulation, can become destructive or vocal.  These are not necessarily due to separation anxiety.

Signs of Separation Anxiety

Most common:

  • Continuous barking
  • Defecation/urination
  • Drooling
  • Destructive behavior

Other signs include:

  • Chewing or digging
  • Self-destructive behavior or excessive self-licking
  • Desperate attempts to break out of the house or crate such as chewing up the door frame or bending the crate bars
  • Loss of appetite or vomiting
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Whining, pacing or resisting confinement at departure times



What to do

Once it is determined that separation anxiety is an issue, certain protocols can help.  It is important to realize that it may take several months for the dog to become comfortable being alone.  If neighbors are complaining or the dog is extremely uncomfortable, seek the help of a veterinarian or veterinarian behaviorist immediately.  In the meantime, it may be necessary to find a family member, dog sitter, or daycare arrangement.

Remember that the dog is extremely fearful when left alone and punishment will not help.  It can even exacerbate the problem by adding an extra layer of distress for the dog.  The following tips may help alleviate the dog’s anxiety:

  1. Exercise; long walks (or runs), at least 30 minutes to an hour twice a day, will provide the dog with mental stimulation and exercise. Agility, nose work games, playing fetch in the yard, or obedience classes are additional ways to provide physical and mental stimulation.
  2. Train the dog to relax on a mat or bed, *See Relaxation Protocol. Teaching the dog to stay on a mat or bed can help prevent clingy, dependent behavior. Be sure to give the dog a long lasting chew toy while on the mat.
  3. Acclimate the dog to a crate before leaving it alone, *See Crate Training Protocol. Once the dog is comfortable in the crate, leave it alone with several short sessions of crate time without leaving the house. Always provide the dog with something to chew on or a fun puzzle toy.
  4. Make all interactions with the dog on a command-response-reward basis. *See Simple Ways to Manage your Dog’s Behavior Protocol. This is also known as the “Nothing in Life is Free” or the “Say, Please” program and will help to make the dog more independent by ignoring demanding or attention-seeking behaviors.
  5. Everyone in the family should keep arrivals and departures low-key by ignoring the dog 15 minutes before leaving the house (after giving the dog a stuffed Kong or bully stick to work on). When returning home, ignore the dog until it settles. If the dog needs to go out to relieve itself immediately, take it out without any extra petting, handling or excitement.
  6. Outdoor noises can also increase a dog’s anxiety. Leaving on a radio, television, or white noise machine can help to drown out some of these noises. If crating or confinement is being utilized, keep the dog away from windows or doors in a quiet part of the house.
  7. Keep to a regular routine as much as possible. Dog’s with separation anxiety like predictability.
  8. Invest in a pet camera to monitor the dog’s response to being alone. Having a video of the dog’s behavior can help a veterinarian behaviorist with a treatment plan.



Desensitization and Counter-Conditioning

Make a list of things that are done prior to departure that cue the dog. For example, picking up keys, packing a purse, or putting on a coat. To desensitize the dog to these triggers, try randomly picking up the keys, but go nowhere. Or, put on a coat and walk around the house. Done randomly throughout the day, the dog will soon learn that these triggers do not predict departure.

Counter-conditioning is changing a dog’s emotional response by pairing the trigger to the departure with something the dog finds pleasant. Give the dog its favorite treat and then pick up the keys. Repeat this several times and then, reverse it. Pick up your keys and then give the dog’s favorite treat.

To counter-condition the dog’s fear of the departure itself, try tossing a hand full of the dog’s favorite treats and then step out the door for a few minutes while it is eating the treats. Always plan your exits while the dog is busy with a favorite treat, stuffed Kong or bully stick. Increase departure times slowly from a few minutes to 15 minutes, to 30 minutes and so on until the dog is comfortable. 

Desensitization and counter-conditioning require owner commitment and are very time consuming. Support from a veterinarian behaviorist and medications that alleviate panic and anxiety may be necessary. Generally, it is the combination of the two that lead to success.

Download Housetraining 101 PDF


Bringing a new dog or puppy home is an exciting event. Housetraining on the other hand is where the work begins. Housetraining requires patience and consistency, but the job usually goes smoother if some preparation is done ahead of time. An adult dog from a rescue or shelter will have the physical ability to be housetrained quickly. A puppy will need longer to physically develop in order to have bladder control. The following tips can help get the new dog on the road to being housetrained.

Housetraining an adult dog

An adult dog has the physical ability to be housetrained through the night and for a regular work-day but this doesn’t always mean that the dog learned this skill.  If the dog was raised in a shelter or lacked a consistent environment, bad habits may be started.  It is also possible that the dog had training but doesn’t know how to generalize the experience to a new home.  Either way, getting off on the right foot can help.  It is advisable to purchase a crate and schedule some time off if possible.  If this is not possible, have a family member available or schedule a dog walker to come in during the day.

  1. Pick a regular potty spot or area. On day one, take the dog to this specific area every couple of hours or until the dog relieves itself in this spot. Praise the dog or give a treat when this happens.  By going to the same spot, the dog will associate that spot with going potty. This can be done while acclimating the dog to the new crate. If the dog is being trained in the yard, go with the dog to make sure the dog relieves itself outdoors and is not running around playing. A leash may be necessary at first to keep the dog on task.
  2. Create a schedule. Once the dog begins to successfully go potty in the designated spot, start to extend the time between outings by adding 1 hour at a time. It is helpful to allow the dog a potty break about 15-30 minutes after a meal. Do not let the dog out of sight in between yet.  It may be helpful to set up baby gates or close doors to prevent it from wandering off to have an accident. Interrupt any potential accidents by clapping your hands or saying “No” and taking the dog immediately to the potty spot. Again, praise for success at the designated area. Thoroughly clean any accident with an enzyme cleaner (sold at all pet supply stores).
  3. Continue to supervise. If the dog is now comfortable for short periods in the crate, it can be used to start extending the time between potty breaks. Put the dog in the crate with his favorite stuffed Kong or chew whenever it is left unattended. This can help when it’s time to go back to work or for trips to the store or gym. If going back to work full time, have a dog walker or family member come in mid-day to let the dog out.
  4. Watch for body language cues. Accidents can still happen so it’s important to watch for suggestive body language such as circling, restlessness, or pacing in front of the door. Take the dog out immediately and praise for success!
  5. Avoid punishment. Above all, never punish the dog for an accident. Remember to go back to the last stage of success and progress at a slower pace. Once trained, try to keep to a consistent schedule so the dog can feel comfortable. Continue to take the dog out first thing in the morning, about 15-30 minutes after a meal and last thing at night. Trained adult dogs need at least 4 potty breaks a day along with regular walks and exercise.

Housetraining a puppy

Housetraining a puppy may take a little longer, especially very young puppies and small breed puppies.  Physically the bladder is small, so the general rule of thumb is one hour for every month of age.  For example, a puppy that is 2 months old needs to go out every 2 hours, a puppy that is 3 months old needs to go out every 3 hours and so on.  If this is not possible, perhaps it is the wrong time to bring home a puppy.  It’s a good idea to have all resources lined up before proceeding.  This may mean taking time off work, hiring a dog walker, or asking family or reliable friends for assistance.  Go to the pet supply store and purchase a crate, preferably a wire crate with an adjustable divider that grows with the puppy, and a large bottle of enzyme cleaner. *See our handout on Crate Training.

  1. Establish a routine for the puppy. Puppies, like children, do best when a consistent routine is followed. This includes feeding time, going out for potty breaks, play time and bed time. At first, take the puppy outside to a regular potty spot immediately after waking up (even from a nap), right after eating or drinking water and during or after playing. Regardless of the puppy’s age, also start by taking it out every 2 hours. Even though accidents may happen, the goal is to get the puppy out before this happens.
  2. Use lots of praise. Praise or give the puppy a treat immediately after he has finished going potty. Always go outside with the puppy, even if he’s being trained in a yard, to make sure he’s relieving itself and to praise success. Avoid any punishment if a mistake occurs. Instead, interrupt the puppy with a hand-clap or by saying “No” and immediately get the puppy outside to the designated spot.
  3. Supervise and use the crate. Consider it human error if the puppy has an accident while unsupervised. Use baby gates or the crate to keep the puppy from wandering into other rooms to relieve itself or chew on household items. It may seem like too much time in the crate, but puppies sleep a lot. Make sure that frequent potty breaks, regular walks, exercise and playtime are consistently provided on schedule.
  4. Bed time schedule. Pick up the puppy’s water bowl about 2 1/5 to 3 hours before bed time and don’t feed after about 6:00 pm. Most puppies will need to go out to relieve themselves a couple times during the night at first but learn very quickly to hold it through the night. Small breed puppies may need a little longer. If the puppy wakes up and whines or is restless, take it out but keep it very low key; otherwise the puppy will think it’s time to get up or play. Don’t play with or talk to the puppy, go directly back to bed after going out.
  5. Plan for time away. Soon the puppy’s schedule can be extended to longer durations between going out to relieve itself. By the time the puppy is 6 months, it is reasonable to say that a dog walker can come in once, mid-day to take the puppy out. On the way to that age, stick to the recommended schedule of one hour for every month of age. 

Note: Unless it is a small breed puppy that is going to permanently use pee pads, avoid using them if possible, as it may prolong the process of housetraining. Instead, hire a dog walker or engage a family member or trusted friend if time away cannot be avoided.

Download Households with Children PDF


Bringing a newly adopted dog or puppy into a household with children can be a wonderful addition to your family, giving your child a best friend for life and teaching responsibility and important life skills.

Dogs who have not yet been acclimated to children may find children’s body language confusing or over-stimulating. Similarly, children who do not have experience with dogs may not know how to be gentle with their new friend.

The first step is finding a dog that will enjoy a family with children. Not all dogs will be able to get along with children; in fact, some dogs are even afraid of children. If looking to adopt, be sure to bring the whole family. This helps make the adoption a family experience and helps to ensure a proper fit.

Regardless of whether bringing home a puppy or adult dog management, adult supervision and training are important to keep everyone safe and comfortable. Management means controlling the environment to make sure both the children and dog are kept safe. Supervision requires that an adult is present and watchful of all interactions between the children and the dog.

It is advised to enroll in a training class to help teach basic behaviors to the new dog or puppy. Teaching the basics can help a new dog learn impulse control and help avoid the dog practicing bad habits such as jumping up on people, chasing the children or developing bad leash behavior.  PAWS Chicago recommends using only trainers that use positive reinforcement and that avoid the use of punishment. *See our handouts on Managing your Dog’s Behavior, Clicker Training, and Relaxation Protocol.

The following recommendations can help set up the environment for success:

  1. Socialize the new dog around children. This means slowly introducing children in a positive way and observing the dog’s body language in multiple situations. Coach children to be gentle and calm to create good feelings for the new dog. Do not force interactions and allow the dog to approach or leave on his own terms. Use plenty of the dog’s favorite treats and lots of praise. Be observant and remove the dog if there are signs of stress. Start with family members only and move on to the children’s friends, one at a time, after the dog shows confidence around the children.
  2. Practice Handling Exercises. Even well-behaved children will want to hug and pet the dog and may even pull the dog’s fur or tail. Get the dog used to this type of handling using treats and praise. Pull gently on the dog’s tail, examine the feet and ears and give the dog a quick hug followed by favorite treats and praise. Consult a trainer if the dog exhibits fear of this behavior and supervise the children closely to avoid putting the dog in a precarious situation. 
  3. Set up a quiet or “safe” place for your dog. Even the most tolerant dog may need a place to get away or rest. This can be a crate in another room or a room with a secure baby gate. *See our handout on Crate Training. Confine the dog to its crate or quiet space with a stuffed Kong toy when unable to supervise. This can also be used if the dog appears stressed, if the children are playing a game that the dog can’t be part of, or during meals.
  4. Control your dog’s resources. Many dog’s have a favorite toy or sleeping space. Sometimes a dog may feel the need to guard its belongings, especially those it considers high value. When giving the dog a high-value item, especially a chew item, rawhide or stuffed Kong, provide the treat in its crate or quiet place. Many accidents happen when a child gets too close to a dog’s resources. Always feed the dog in quiet place where it can eat undisturbed. In addition, teach children to leave the dog alone while it is sleeping.
  5. Use a leash when necessary.  Some dogs may want to chase children and join in the game, especially when they are running, roughhousing or making high-pitched sounds. Until the dog has learned manners and impulse control, use a leash to prevent the dog from chasing and potentially nipping the children. This is a good time to practice manners or Relaxation Protocol. Have the dog’s favorite treats and ask for trained behaviors while the children are playing. This is also a good idea when visiting children are present. Remove the dog from the room or yard if it needs to be left unsupervised. Young children should never be left unattended with a dog.
  6. Make use of a “timeout.” A timeout can be used to help manage a dog who becomes overly excited around children. If the dog jumps up or becomes too excited or mouthy, removing it from the situation gives everyone a break. Interrupt the unwanted behavior and ask the dog for a more appropriate behavior such as “sit” that can be rewarded. If the dog is too excited to comply, put it in his crate or quiet place until it settles. At this point the dog can be given a favorite chew or stuffed toy to help calm down.
  7. Don’t let bad habits start. Most bad habits start due to lack of management. Be consistent about the rules that the dog needs to follow involving the children. If the dog is not allowed on the furniture, don’t allow the children to coax the dog up. Prevent the dog from developing the habit of harassing the children for food by confining it at mealtimes with its own stuffed Kong or favorite chew. Immediately interrupt unruly behaviors such as jumping up or chasing the children with more appropriate, rewardable ones such as “sit” or “down.”
  8. Teach your children well. Managing the new dog is only half of the equation. Children must also be taught the rules. Teach children why it is important to pet a dog gently, to leave a dog alone while it is sleeping or in its crate, to never approach the dog while it is eating or chewing a bone, and to never force attention on the dog. Once the dog has some training, incorporating the children into the training process is good way to create a lasting bond. Positive reinforcement training, especially clicker training, is fun and easy for children to do.

Download Resource Guarding PDF


It is a part of a dog’s survival instinct to guard or possess food and other valuables; behavior can range from putting a head over a valued possession, running away with the item, growling at a person’s approach, to full blown aggression such as snapping, lunging, or biting. However, in most cases, resource guarding can be managed in a household and there are ways to help the dog make changes.

Simple management in the home may be all that is needed for a successful living situation in many mild cases. It is important to identify what a dog may guard in order to set up a management plan. A dog can guard anything considered valuable, but most often it is food, chew bones or treats, a valued toy, beds or resting spots, and sometimes even family members.

Children in a home with a resource-guarding dog can be very risky. Unfortunately, young children are simply incapable of reading a dog’s warning signs and may not understand that taking something away from a dog can result in a bite. Some dogs will guard an item dropped on the floor and even with watchful management in place, it’s impossible to prevent accidents.

Household management

Successful management involves identifying the triggers or items that the dog may guard and then setting up an environment to ensure everyone’s safety. The following tips are recommended for different situations:

  1. In the case of food bowl guarding, feed the dog in a quiet place, undisturbed. This may be a corner of the room, away from traffic.  Notify household members that the dog is eating if it is not behind a door or barrier. Otherwise, the dog can be fed behind a gate, in another room, or in a crate as potential solutions. *See our handout on Crate Training for more information.
  2. Remember that if a food item (or other valued possession) falls on the floor close to the dog, don’t reach to pick it up.  Never attempt to take a stolen item or piece of food from the dog.  Teach the dog the cues “Leave it and Drop it.” *See our handout on Leave it and Drop it to successfully teach the dog to trade up for higher value treats or items.
  3. Keep the dog off furniture, including the owner’s bed. Enroll in a training class to teach the dog basic cue’s including “off,” using positive reinforcement such as clicker training. *See our handout on Clicker Training for more information. Avoid reaching for the dog’s collar to pull it off the furniture if the dog jumps up. Instead, toss its favorite treat with a happy voice and non-confrontational body language to call it off the furniture.  Use a leash while relaxing in the living room to keep the dog from jumping up on the couch, or if necessary, use a crate at night to keep the dog off the bed. Once basic cues are mastered, focus on mat training to teach the dog it is rewarding to go to its own bed to relax or sleep. Leave the dog alone while in its resting place or sleeping.
  4. Use special care and management if there are guests in the home, especially children. Even if a dog that has learned it is safe to have resources around trusted family members, the dog may not feel this way with unfamiliar people. Put the dog in a crate, behind a barrier, or in another room while food is present.
  5. Watch for specific body language cues to help pre-empt a problem. When a dog feels happy it appears calm, breathes normally, is soft and wiggly, and may roll over on a hip or side. Body posture and eyes are soft and relaxed. Signs of guarding and aggression include: standing stiffly or hunkering over a food bowl or item, hard staring, tension in the face, growling, or snarling.
  6. Never punish guarding behavior. Learn to recognize the early warning signs such as a growl or hard stare and back off. This will teach the dog that communication works without having to resort to a future bite and may lower conflict. 
  7. Work with puppies to desensitize guarding behavior by reviewing our handout on Puppy Stages and What to Do. When a puppy is conditioned at a young age it can learn that good things happen when a person approaches its food bowl or a treasured item.  



Modifying Resource- Guarding Behavior

The following protocol is designed to help modify food bowl guarding behavior in mild to moderate cases and to teach a dog or puppy that good things happen when its food bowl is approached by a person. The protocol can also be helpful to work on modifying resource-guarding of chew objects.

*Do not attempt to resolve the issue on your own if a bite occurred in the past or there is a chance the dog may bite again; instead consult a professional certified veterinarian behaviorist or certified professional dog trainer with experience in aggression.

If, at any time while working the following protocol, the dog growls or exhibits any of the guarding body language mentioned above, stop and back up. Going too fast will push the dog over threshold and demonstrates a need to slow down the process or seek help.

Step 1:

Prepare a supply of the dog’s favorite treats and put them in a pouch or bait bag. These can include cut up pieces of chicken, cheese, hot dogs, or the dog’s special favorite treats. Tether the dog or puppy to a large, stable pole or object and give the dog its food in a bowl or favorite long-lasting chew such as a bully stick, pig ear, or stuffed Kong toy. 

Step 2: 

As the dog begins to eat or chew, pass by or stand at a safe distance from the dog, about 6 to 8 feet from the end of the tether. Use special care not to move towards the dog but to pass by parallel to the dog or stand still. Toss several treats to the dog while standing or passing by. If any signs of guarding are observed, create more distance and try again.

Step 3:

Repeat the last step for several days or weeks until the dog is looking up with happy body language anticipating the treats for about 10 sessions in a row. Then repeat the sequence taking one step towards the dog, tossing the treats, and taking one step back. Repeat this throughout the meal or while the dog is chewing.

Step 4: 

Every day, take another step closer to the dog to toss the treats while continuing to observe the dog’s body language. Make sure the dog is happy and relaxed at each step and back up if freezing, hard staring, or growling is observed. The steps will probably go faster while conditioning a puppy that doesn’t guard than with a known resource-guarding dog. 

Step 5:  

When it is possible to stand next to the dog to toss the treats, and the dog’s body language is still happy, start to drop the treats directly into the bowl, pause, and then walk away.  Repeat this until the dog stops eating when approached and is waiting for the treats with anticipation and relaxed body language. At this point, encourage the dog to take the treat directly from the hand and then, retreat.

Step 6: 

Gradually increase the time by the food bowl alternately feeding the treats by hand and dropping them into the food bowl. If working with a chew, ask the dog to “Drop it” and jack pot with a few treats when it releases the chew when asked. Allow the dog to go back to the chew after finishing the treats.

Step 7: 

This next step should only be done with mild or moderate resource-guarding cases, where dogs have not inflicted a bite, unless supervised by a certified canine professional. Stand next to the dog while it is eating from his food bowl or chewing is treat. Bend down and touch the food bowl or chew with one hand while offering a treat with the other. Keep observing for any signs of tension. The dog should remain relaxed and happy.

Step 8: 

Repeat the previous step multiple times, observing the dog’s body language. The next step is to “trade-up” the food bowl, drop a jack pot of treats, and walk away with the bowl. Put something extra tasty in the bowl and return it to the dog and walk away. If working with the chew, ask the dog to “Drop it” and work “trade-ups” continuing to jack pot when the dog releases the chew and then return it and walk away.

Step 9: 

Start back at the very beginning with other family members or people. It is important to generalize this behavior to avoid conflict. With young puppies or dogs, continue to periodically walk by the food bowl and drop a piece of chicken into the bowl. All objects taken away should be done by asking the dog to “Drop it” and followed by a “trade-up” using high- value treats.

When done slowly and with care, the dog will soon anticipate treats and good things happening when a person approaches, especially when they have something of value. By going through the above stages, resource-guarding can be de-railed in a young dog and modified to better and safer behavior in a dog already displaying guarding tendencies.

Download Leave It and Drop It PDF


"Leave it"

The cue “leave it” is used when we want the dog to leave something or someone alone. It could be an item left on a table, a plastic wrapper, a child’s toy, or dropped food item.  On a walk, the cue “leave it” can be used when we want the dog to turn away from and ignore something or someone. It is particularly useful cue for dogs who are reactive or over excited by people, dogs or wildlife, such as squirrels and rabbits.

Teaching Leave it: Part 1

\We recommend that you have knowledge and practice of clicker training before teaching “Leave it” and “Drop it”. However, the marker word “yes” can be substituted for the click.  *See Clicker Training Protocol.

Step 1: 

Teach the dog to respond to the cue “watch”. *See Clicker Training Protocol. This can be done while teaching the following steps in a separate session. You will need the “watch” cue when you get to Step 4.

Step 2: 

Take a treat and put it in your closed fist. Have more treats ready in your pocket or bait bag. Say “leave it” and put your fist in front of the dog’s nose to sniff. Wait it out if the dog bothers the fist by nudging, bumping or licking. When the dog finally gives up and stops bothering the fist, click or say “yes”, open your hand and say, “take it”.

Step 3: 

Continue to repeat Step 2 until your dog completely leaves your fist alone when you give the cue “leave it.” Meanwhile, continue to practice the “watch” cue to incorporate in the next step.

Step 4: 

Give the cue “leave it” and present the treat in your closed fist. At this point the dog should know to leave it alone. Immediately give the cue “watch”. Click or say “yes” and say “take it” as the dog makes eye contact with you (start with just a split second of eye contact). 

Step 5: 

Practice Step 4 until the dog starts to immediately make eye contact when you say “leave it” (your goal is to drop the cue “watch” and have the dog automatically give eye contact on the “leave it” cue).

Step 6: 

Give the “leave it” cue and present your fist. Slowly open your fist and let the dog see the treat on your hand. If the dog goes to snatch it, quickly close your hand. Wait until the dog leaves the treat alone on your open hand, then click or say “yes” and then, say “take it.” Repeat until the dog no longer tries to take the treat.

Step 7: 

Repeat Step 6 and add the “watch” cue while your hand is open. Click or say “yes” and say “take it” as the dog makes eye contact.

Teaching Leave it: Part 2

When the dog is fluent with the steps in Part 1, you are ready to move on. Part 2 involves removing the “take it” cue and teaching the dog reinforcement comes from turning away from the object, person, or dog that it is asked to leave alone.

Step 1: 

Start with treats in your bait bag or pocket and the dog on a leash. Take up the slack in the leash, give the cue “leave it” and drop a treat on the ground outside of the dog’s reach. If the dog tries to get to the treat, stop it with the leash. It is very important that the dog does not get the treat. Wait until the dog stops trying to get to the treat and there is slack in the leash. Click or say “yes” and deliver a treat from your bait bag or pocket. If the dog tries again to reach the treat, repeat the cue “leave it” and wait for the dog to stop pulling towards the treat. Click or say “yes” and treat the dog from your bait bag or pocket. Pick the treat on the floor up at the end of the exercise so the dog doesn’t get it.

Step 2: 

Practice Step 1 until the dog no longer tries to get to the treat on the floor with a loose leash. Now, start asking the dog to “watch” before the click or “yes” and treat. 

Step 3: 

After the dog can look away from the treat on the floor on the “watch” cue, begin teaching the dog to change direction and move away. Start the exercise by entering the room where a treat is already on the floor.  Stop a few feet from the treat and when the dog starts to show interest, say “leave it”, turn to the right and walk briskly in the other direction. Click or say “yes” and reinforce the dog when it moves with you, ignoring the treat on the floor.

Step 4: 

Start to generalize the exercise by placing different objects, toys or food items on the floor before entering the room.  Repeat Step 3 and practice until the dog can easily ignore the item when given the “leave it’ cue and follow as you move away.

Step 5: 

Practice outside on a walk.  When the dog spots something or someone that is off limits, give the “leave it” cue and turn in the other direction.  Always reinforce the dog for moving away and following you.

"Drop it"

To prevent conflict or resource guarding issues over objects, it is a good idea to teach a dog the cue “drop it,” by trading up for a reward or another item of equal or higher value. This cue can be used when the dog picks up something that is off-limits or can cause potential harm, such as a chicken bone, food wrapper, or personal item. “Drop it” can also be used during play. It is more fun if the dog will drop a ball while playing retrieve games or the rope during tug-of-war.

Step 1: 

Start with an object that the dog does not highly value such as a toy or bone that has lost intense value. Use treats that the dog considers favorites such as cut cheese, hot dogs or chicken.

Step 2: 

Ask the dog you relinquish the item by saying “Drop it” and present a treat close to the dog’s mouth. Immediately reward and praise when it drops the item, then give the item back to the dog after it finishes the treat.

Step 3: 

Practice this exercise again and with other items the dog has, but doesn’t put too high his list of valuables, until it understands it is rewarding to give up resources.

Step 4: 

If the dog enjoys playing ball or tug -of-war, incorporate the “Drop it” cue into the game. For ball games, have two identical balls (this is important because sometimes a dog will hold onto a preferred ball). Throw the first ball and when the dog returns, hold up the second ball and give the cue “Drop it”. When the dog releases the ball, throw the second ball. Soon the dog will learn that dropping the ball will keep the fun game going. 

For tug-of-war, have a pouch or bait bag filled with treats and the dog’s favorite tug toy.  Engage the dog in a game of tug and then stop moving completely.  Reach in the bait bag and hold a treat in front of the dog’s mouth and give the cue “Drop It.”  Immediately praise and reward the dog when it drops the toy, then engage the dog again in the game.  Repeat this several times and then try to do it without the treat, but immediately engaging the dog in the game after it releases the toy.  If the dog refuses to drop the tug toy, simply turn and walk away from the game. At the end of the game, give the “Drop it” cue and a small jackpot of treats when taking the toy.